Vaccines are among the most powerful tools to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. They are highly effective against infection and substantially reduce the risk of severe disease, hospitalization, ICU admission, and death. However, their potential for attenuating long-term changes in personal health and health-related wellbeing after a SARS-CoV-2 infection remains a subject of debate. Such effects can be effectively monitored at the individual level by analyzing physiological data collected by consumer-grade wearable sensors. Here, we investigate changes in resting heart rate, daily physical activity, and sleep duration around a SARS-CoV-2 infection stratified by vaccination status. Data were collected over a period of 2 years in the context of the German Corona Data Donation Project with around 190,000 monthly active participants. Compared to their unvaccinated counterparts, we find that vaccinated individuals, on average, experience smaller changes in their vital data that also return to normal levels more quickly. Likewise, extreme changes in vitals during the acute phase of the disease occur less frequently in vaccinated individuals. Our results solidify evidence that vaccines can mitigate long-term detrimental effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections both in terms of duration and magnitude. Furthermore, they demonstrate the value of large-scale, high-resolution wearable sensor data in public health research.